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(2) Adjectives of Goodness, Usefubiess, Necessity, and the like: betst, best.

(3) Adjectives of Pleasantness and Unpleasantness, and the like: set Jryt, troublesome la S, loathsome.

As already stated, this chapter is based mainly upon the studies of others. To recoimt the history of this discussion is not called for here. But it will generally be allowed, I think, that, in He vri U sing the song, sing is more verbal than to sing in He voishes to sing the song. Typical illustrations of these substantival uses are the following: — (a) As subject: — iminflected: Greg. gode on feawum mannum ot SBe on micclum werode to helpenne on gefeohte and healdan (sic .') t5a Se he wile.

What makes me hope that, despite this, the chapter may prove of interest to Germanic grammarians, is the fact that, with slight modifications for some of the individual languages, the theories that I have advanced for the infinitive in Anglo-Saxon seem to apply also to the infinitive in the other Germanic languages. The Predicative Infinitive with Auxiliary Verbs 288 V. The Predicative Infinitive with Beon (Wesan) 297 VIII. Suffice it to say that, by a careful study of the forms of the words used more or less as infinitives in the older Indo- Germanic languages, Bopp, in his Conjugationssystem der Sanskritsprache (1816), reached the conclusion, now almost universally accepted, that originally the infinitives were petrified cases of nouns of action,' — a discovery that, according to Delbruck, was in a sense the beginning of the science of comparative syntax. Nor does the fact that the more verbal uses of the infinitive were derived originally from the substantival invalidate the helpfulness of this classification. For the abbreviatioii B used here and elsewhere in this study, see the bibliography. 279.6: .^Et aerestiun lyst t Sone monn imnytt sprecan be ot Srum monnum = 210.15: ut prius logui aliena libeat; — inflected: Greg. (d) As an appositive: — uninflected: Bede 78.22»' *" ■:' * e ; fort Son hyngran, Syrstan, hatian, calan, wcerigian, — al Swt is of untrymnesse t Sses gecyndes =55.32'" *" ", 33°' '' : Esurire namque, sitire, aestuare, algere, lassescere ex infirmitate naturae est: — inflected: Solil. 534*"; ic eom gearo to gecyrrenne to munuclicre drohtnunge, and woruldlice t Jeawas ealle forlcetan (sic! 281.5; Sie asghwelc mon suit Je hrced & sui Se geornful to gehieranne = 212.9: Sit omnis homo velox ad audiendum. 5 (c) Of cause: — uninflected: Bede 484.15: mynstres, on t Jam ic gefeo Siowian Saere uplican arfaestnesse = 359.13: in quo supernae pietati deseruire ff OMdeo; — inflected: A.

Carl Krickau, in his Goettingen dissertation, Der Accu- sativ mit dem Infinitiv in der Englischen Sprache, Besonders in dem Zeitalter der Elisabeth, 1877; by Professor J. But, as the titles of the first and the third of these monographs indicate, neither is restricted to the Anglo-Saxon period; and, as shown in their bib Uographies, no one of the three attempts to cover the whole of Anglo-Saxon literatiu-e. The Expression of Purpose in Old English Prose, 1903, and in his pendant thereto. Viele andere Kasus waren erst auf dem Wege, sich zu Infinitiven umzubilden. Im Arischen hat er aich nicht eben erheblich verandert. Some hold that we have (/) a predicative infinitive with a dative subject, but to me the infinitive in such locutions seems more substan- tival than predicative, — a topic that is discussed somewhat at length in Chapter IX. 234: Gewat him t Sa to warot Je wicge ridan t Segn Hro Sgares; Mart. ) t Sa ot Sre t Se lease gesetnysse gesetton; — inflected: Greg. cuse S to ludeum = 244.1: Solerter namque audiendum est, quod etc.; Greg. Less frequent and less clear uses of the adverbial infinitive,, dis- cussed in the chapter entitled " Other Adverbial Uses of the Infinitive," are to denote (c) cause, in which the infinitive is more commonly inflected; (d) specifi- cation with verbs, in which the infinitive is always inflected; (e) result, with adjectives and with verbs, in which the infinitive is always inflected; and (/) the absolute relation, in which the infinitive is habitually inflected.

The final use of the infinitive is briefly treated by Professor H. The Expression of Purpose in Old English Poetry, 1909. Im Griechischen aber hat sich die Eistarrung soweit vollendet, dass nur noch isolierte Formen vorhanden aind, und dass eine Auftheilung der gesammten Masse unter die Tempusstamme und tmter die Genera des Verbums atattgefunden hat. The following are typical examples of these predicative uses: — (a) With auxiliary verbs: — iminflected: Beow. 26.10: culfre com fleogan of heofonum ond gesset ofer his heafde. 415.6: Wuton cuman ser his dome andettende = 336.4: Prceveniamus faciem Domini in confessione. 315.23: Ac us is suit Se georn Uce to gehieranne hwat Dryhten . 13.20: Daette on ot Jre wisan sint to manianne weras, on ot Sre wiif = 130.6: Aliter namque admonendi sunt viri, atque aliter feminse. his Segnas hine secan 7 acsian = 18.25: iussit milites eum . Of these adverbial uses, the following are typical illustrations: — (a) Of purpose: Greg.

Portions of the field, however, have been treated hitherto. Noch in der Ursprache war bei einigen derselben die Erstaming so weit vorgeschritten, dass eine neue Kategorie, die dea Infinitivs, in's Bewusstsein trat. 53.3: Be t Saem Se wilna S biscephad to underfonne= 28.23: De his, qui proeesse concupiscunt. In the predicative (or verbal) function, the infinitive approaches nearest to a finite verb, and is used to complete the assertion of a verb of incomplete as- sertion, specifically: (o) the auxiliary verbs, after which we have habitually the uninflected infinitive; (b) verbs of motion (and occasionally of rest) other than in the (w)uton locution, likewise followed by the uninflected infinitive; (c) (w)uton, also with the simple infinitive; and (d) the verb beon {wesan), which is habitually followed by the inflected inflnitive of obligation or of necessity. 191: ne mikte snotor hselet S wean onwendan; etc.; — inflected: Rid. Of the adverbial uses of the infinitive, the most common is (a) to denote purpose, with verbs, in which the infinitive is sometimes uninflected (especially after verbs of motion, of rest, and of giving), but is usually inflected except in the poetry. 319.1: t5a mettas t Se God self gesceop to etanne geleaffu Uum monnum = 246.1: a cibis, quos Deus creavit ad percipiendum .

The accusative-with-infinitive construction has been discussed by Dr. Indirect Discourse in Anglo-Saxon, 1895; and by Dr. The Accusative with Infinitive and Some Kindred Con- structions in English, 1908. Einige Exemplare dieser neuen Formgattung mogen schon in formal ausgepragte Beziehung zu einzelnen Tempussystemen getreten sein. (c) As predicate nominative: — uninflected and inflected: ^If. Under the predicative function, also, I should put the use of the infinitive (e) as a quasi-predicate to an accusative subject, or the so-called accusative-with-infinitive construction, in which we have habitually the simple infinitive. 37.13: Du wast gif t Su const to gesecganne, t Jset we so S witan hu Baere wihte wise gonge. (b) With verbs of motion other than (iw)Mtora; — uninflected: Beow. 336.223: t Sas feower ana syndon to underfonne on geleaf Tulre gelat Sunge and forlcetan (sic! 139.13: ne eft hi ne scoldon hira loccas Icetan weaxan = 100.9: neque comam nutrient; Bede 156.21: Da gehyrde he sumne Sara brot Sra sprecan, t Sset etc. Frequent, too, is the use of the infinitive (6) to denote specification, or respect wherein, with adjectives (occasionally with adverbs), in which the infinitive is habitually inflected.

Moreover, most of the uses of the infinitive are briefly discussed in these stand- ard grammars of Anglo-Saxon: A Comparative Grammar of the Anglo-Saxon Language, by F. March, New York, 1873; Angelsaechsische Grammatik, by Theodor "Mueller, Goettingen, 1883; Die Syntax in den Werken Alfreds des Grossen, by Dr. Leon Kellner, London, 1892; A New English Grammar, PREFACE. Henry Sweet, Oxford, 1892-1898; and the "Syntax" by Pro- fessor Eugen Einenkel, in Kluge's Geschichte der Englischen Sprache, 2d ed., Strassburg, 1899. Otto Apelt's "Bemerkungen ueber den Accusa^ ibnis cum Infinitivo im Althochdeutschen und Mittelhochdeutschen," in the Weimar Jahresbericht of 1875; Dr. The Predicative Infinitive with Aitxiliakt Verbs 79 A. The Prbdicattvb i NFi Nirnr B with Verbs op Motion and of Rest .... The Active Infinitive 107 Uninflected 107 General Statement 107 With Verbs of Commanding 108 With Verbs of Causing and Permitting 110 With Verbs of Sense Perception 112 With Verbs of Mental Perception 114 With Verbs of Declaring II7 With Other Verbs Ug CONTENTS. The Predicative Infinitive with Dative Subject 127 The Active Infinitive 127 With Impersonal Verbs 127 Uninflected 127 Inflected 127 Differentiation of the Two Infinitives 129 With Personal Verbs 129 Uninflected 129 Inflected 130 Differentiation of the Two Infinitives 131 CHAPTER X. The Predicative Infinitive with Auxiliary Verbs 194 V. The Predicative Infinitive with Beon (Wesan) 200 VIII. The Predicate Nominative of the Present Participle for the Ptedicative Infinitive after Verbs of Motion 221 2, The Predicate Accusative of the Present Participle for the Predicative In- finitive with Accusative Subject 225 CHAPTER XVI. The Predicative Infinitive with Verbs of Motion and of Rest .... The Predicative Infinitive with Accusative Subject 241 IX. When we turn to our own branch of the Indo-Germanic family, the Ger- manic, we find a much simpler state of affairs. 4.3: Ut eode se saedere his ssed to sawenne = Ecce exiit seminans ad seminandum; Mlj.

Naturally, too, I have examined the special treatises dealing with the infinitive in Middle English and in Modern English, all chronicled in my bibliography. Steig's "Ueber den Gebrauch des Infinitivs im Altniederdeutschen," in the Zeitschriftfuer Deutsche Philologie, xvi, 1884, pp. Arthur Denecke's Der Gebrauch des Infini- tivs bei den Althochdeutschen Uebersetzern des Achten und Neunten Jahrhunderts, a Leipzig dissertation of 1880; Dr. Herford's "Ueber den Accusativ mit dem Infinitiv im Deutschen," in the Thorn Program of 1881 ; and Dr. Von Mon- sterberg-Muenckenau's Der Infinitiv in den Epen Hartmanns von Aue, Breslau, 1885. The Active Infinitive 79 General Statement 79 Uninflected 80 Inflected 80 Differentiation of the Two Infinitives 82 B. 89 The Active Infinitive 89 General Statement 89 Uninflected Only 89 With Verbs of Motion 90 With Verbs of Rest 91 CHAPTER VI. xr PAOB The Pbedicativb i NFi Nmv B with Accusative Subject — continued. The Final Infinitive 132 The Active Infinitive 132 1. PAOB Other Adverbul Uses of the Infinitive f"" The Causal Infinitive ;^Y The Infinitive of Specification with Verbs |0^ The Consecutive Infinitive J°^ The Absolute Infinitive 1^9 The Conditional Infinitive 171 The Modal Infinitive 171 Differentiation of the Two Infinitives 172 CHAPTER XIII. The Predicative Infinitive with Verbs of Motion and of Rest .... The Predicative Infinitive with Accusative Subject 203 IX. The Infinitive in the Other Germanic Languages 231 I. The Predicative Infinitive with Dative Subject 248 X. The history of the infinitive forms in the Germanic languages, including English, is succinctly given by Professor Joseph Wright, in his Old English Grammar (London, 1908), § 480: 1 See Jolly, I.

Less restricted in one way and more restricted in another is the scope of Dr. Farrar's The Gerund in Old English, a Washington and Lee dissertation of 1902; Dr. The Predicative Inpinitivju with "Beon" ("Wesan") 97 The Active Infinitive 97 Denoting Necessity or Obligation 97 Denoting Futurity 104 Denoting Purpose 105 Notes 106 CHAPTER VIII. Von dem letztgenannten Vorgang findet sich im Arischen noch keine Spur." In the foregoing quotation describing the evolution from noun of action to infinitive, Professor Delbruck states that various cases of the noun were involved. (e) With an accusative subject: — uninflected: Bede 34.25: Da Aet he . 309.14: eodon him plegean = 238.10: surrexerunt Ivdere; Gen.

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