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603) First pies Food historians confirm ancient people made pastry.

Recipes, cooking techniques, meal presence and presentations varied according to culture and cuisine.

Modern pie, as we Americans know it today, descends from Medieval European ingredients (fat=suet, lard, butter) and technology (pie plates, freestanding pies, tiny tarts).

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254) "If the basic concept of 'a pie' is taken to mean a mixture of ingredients encased and cooked in pastry, then proto-pies were made in the classical world and pies certainly figured in early Arab cookery.

But those were flat affairs, since olive oil was used as the fat in the pastry and will not produce upstanding pies; pastry made with olive oil is 'weak' and readily slumps." ---Oxford Companion to Food, Alan Davidson, 2nd edition, Tom Jaine editor [Oxford University Press: Oxford] 2006 (p.

The first pies were very simple and generally of the savory (meat and cheese) kind.

Flaky pastry fruit-filled turnovers appeared in the early 19th century.

Smith editor [Oxford University Press: New York] 2004 (p.

272) About pastry Food historians trace the genesis of pastry to ancient mediterranean paper-thin multi-layered baklava and filo.Moreover, there are several editions of ancient texts and recipe numbers/titles do not always match.Food historians confirm the ancients crafted foods approximating pie.The derivation of the word may be from magpie, shortened to pie.The explanation offered in favour or this is that the magpie collects a variety of things, and that it was an essential feature of early pies that they contained a variety of ingredients." ---The Oxford Companion to Food, Alan Davidson, 2nd edition, Tom Jaine editor [Oxford University Press: Oxford] 2006 (p.A piecrust used less flour than bread and did not require anything as complicated as a brick oven for baking.

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